The weather outside is frightful… But who’s to say that a temperature like that of today, January 22, 2013, at -27C is actually cold?I for one definitely think that’s cold, but let’s compare that temperature to a few others; the coldest day ever recorded (-89C), or the temperature of dry ice (-88C) or even to the temperature of liquid nitrogen (-196C). When looking at those temperatures, today would seem more like a nice day to go to the beach than a cold winter day! To see some fun experiments I performed outside today (did I mention it was -27C today?) check out the video below as well as an experiment you can try at home!
Michael D. Adams - “Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds. Biochemistry is the study of carbon compounds that crawl.” Last month we talked about organic chemistry, and some of the different functional groups organic molecules could have. This month I wanted to explore organic chemistry in the body, with carboxylic acids and amines. We often think of our bodies as biological. While this is true, you will also learn how we all basically run on chemistry! This is why there is a science dedicated to the understanding of chemistry within our bodies. This science is called biochemistry. With a perfect marriage between chemistry and biology, I wanted to help explain some of the biology at play so I have partnered up with one of Science North’s Biologists, Tina Haché-Roy to create this blog post. Below, Tina and I will explain some of the chemistry behind our body’s inner workings!Let’s start with the chemistry side of carboxylic acids. These are long carbon chain molecules that have a carboxylic acid functional group on one end. (see pic below) Having this functional group at the one end makes this molecule both a hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecule. But what does hydrophilic and hydrophobic mean? Carboxylic Acid groupHydrophilic molecules are molecules that really like water; they can easily dissolve in water. A good example of a hydrophilic molecule would be sodium chloride or salt. Hydrophobic on the other hand is just the opposite. It is a molecule that really dislikes water, and cannot dissolve in it. A good example of a hydrophobic molecule is oil. Now you know why oil and water don’t mix!An example of such a molecule in the body would be fatty acids. But what are fatty acids? These long-chain carboxylic acids are generally referred to by their common names, which in most cases reflect the source. The four types of biologically important fatty acids are fats, waxes, phospholipids and steroids. Let’s explore a few today. Stearic Acid is the most common saturated fatty acid. Fats and oils (triglycerides) are found both in plants and animals, and compose a large part of our diets. These molecules offer our bodies a reserve of energy to be used when our blood sugar supply runs out after 4 to 6 hours without food. Fats are also responsible for helping our bodies absorb vitamins A, D and E. Trans-fats, which are a type of fatty acids, are formed during the refining of liquid vegetable oils. They are also created when manufacturers use a process called "partial hydrogenation." This process turns liquid oil into a semi-solid form, such as shortening or margarine. Unnatural trans-fats appear to be associated with increased heart diseases, cancer, diabetes and obesity.Phospholipids, a second types of fatty acids, are the main constituents of cell membranes. These are made from glycerol, two fatty acids, and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon tails of the fatty acids are still hydrophobic, but the phosphate group end of the molecule is hydrophilic because the oxygen and the hydrogen atoms do not share the electrons equally, making this end polar. As seen in one of my previous posts, polar molecules are readily dissolved in water, making them hydrophilic. Steroids are structurally different from other fatty acids since their carbon skeleton is bent to form four fused rings. The most common steroid is cholesterol. This molecule is needed to make the male and female sex hormones: testosterone and progesterone. Cholesterol is also a component of cell membranes and is needed for the proper function of nerve cells. In excess, cholesterol has been linked to heart disease. So let’s move on now to Amines. Amines are molecules that are typically made up of a long carbon chain and on one end have an amine functional group. (see pic below) An amine functional group, is made up of 1 nitrogen and 2 hydrogen atoms. Amines are essential to life as the ingredient for amino acids. Amino acids are known as the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 amino acids and humans can produce 10 of the 20. The others must be supplied by our diets.Amine functional group Tryptophan: An essential amino acid used in proteins. Must be acquired through your diet. Can be found in most meats, among other foods but most famously, in turkey. Histamine: An amine that acts as a neurotransmitter. Often used in topical medication for skin irritation, such as hivesIn our bodies, many amines are neurotransmitters, chemicals made in the cell body of neurons that allow the transmission of signals from one neuron to the next. Some examples of these are norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, histamine and serotonin. As you now know, biochemistry is a study of both biology and chemistry, as it relates to living things. We all know that the human body is very complex. Knowing what we know about how our body works and how biochemistry plays out in our cells, we can make smarter lifestyle choices and have science as our proof to do so!
Carbon is the most important element for life on earth! There is a whole branch of chemistry called ‘organic chemistry’ that focuses on all the compounds that are carbon-based. When a molecule or compound is classified as an organic compound it means that the backbone of the molecule is made of carbon atoms linked with other types of atoms. Most often those other atoms are hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Let’s start with the molecules that only contain carbon and hydrogen. Believe it or not, with just those two elements, the possibilities for compounds are endless! When a molecule contains only carbon and hydrogen we call it a “hydrocarbon”. In order to differentiate between these molecules, a naming system has been developed by the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry). Take a look at the series of images below and see if you can fill in the blanks. MethaneEthane PropaneButane Pentane____________ ??Heptane____________ ??NonaneDecane As you can see, each molecule starts with a suffix that indicates how many carbon atoms the chain contains. Notice that they all end with “ane”? This suffix tells chemists that each carbon atom is bonded to the next carbon atom by a single bond.Organic molecules such as these can have many variations. For instance, they may contain a double bond or an oxygen or nitrogen atom. Whenever we see a difference in the molecule, we create a separate name for it so that it can be easily identified and differentiated. Below you will find a few of the different types of groups: Alkenes: When a double bond connects two carbon atoms, it eliminates one of the hydrogen atoms and changes the “ane” ending to an “ene” ending. Alkynes: When a triple bond connects two carbon atoms, it eliminates two of the hydrogen atoms, and changes the “ane” or “ene” ending to an “yne” ending. When a new element is introduced, such as oxygen or nitrogen, this changes the name of the compound as well. Since there are a number of different ways to place these elements, naming them gets a little tricky. When oxygen or nitrogen is added it is called a functional group, because it is often the functional group that reacts with other molecules. This makes functional groups very important! In the pictures below you will see a few of the different functional groups that organic compounds can contain.As you will see, many organic compounds with functional groups are very important to our bodies. Be sure to check back next month when we explore the beauty of chemistry and biology working together: biochemistry. Aldehydes(Glucose is an aldehyde. Glucose is a molecule that is a very important source of energy for our bodies) AminesMany amines found in the body are neurotransmitters such as epinephrine, dopamine and serotonin. AlcoholsA good example of Alcohols and one that we can actually consume is ethanol, but it can also be used as a source of fuel for cars. KetonesA good example of a ketone is acetone, which is used in many nail polish removers. But ketones can also be used as a source of energy when glucose is less available such as during times of fasting. Carboxylic acids Asprin, lactic acid (builds up in muscle tissue when there is a lack of oxygen), and vitamin C are good examples of common carboxylic acids.
This month we are celebrating chemistry by looking at some reversible chemical reactions. We often learn in school that a sign of a chemical reaction is that it is not reversible, a new product is formed and we can’t get the original products back. This is often the case, but not always. One of the most important reversible chemical reactions happens every minute of everyday inside each and every one of us; the process of cellular respiration! When blood travels away from your heart it has oxygen bonded to it, it then breaks those bonds, deposits the oxygen throughout your body, returns to your heart/lungs without any oxygen, and repeats the process all over again. The chemical reaction of getting and loosing oxygen is called an oxidation, reduction reaction, and in this case is completely reversible. Other common types of reversible chemical reactions are that of rechargeable batteries. When your laptop’s battery runs of out of charge, do you throw it away? Of course not, you re-charge it! This is reversing the chemical reaction that was able to power your laptop in the first place. There are only three short months left for the International Year of Chemistry. We are going to be exploring organic chemistry during the next three posts, so be sure to check back for those, and keep on celebrating!
This month I wanted to celebrate chemistry by talking about thermodynamics. Thermodynamics is a scientific term used to describe the heat energy involved in a chemical reaction. In terms of chemical reactions we can have endothermic or exothermic reactions.Endothermic reactions are reactions that have lost energy and heat has been absorbed. An excellent example of an endothermic reaction is that of cold packs. Inside cold packs there is a chemical, usually ammonium nitrate and water, when you mix those chemicals together the reaction is endothermic, and the product feels cold.Exothermic reactions are reactions that have released energy through the reaction and produce heat. An excellent example of an exothermic reaction is that of heat packs. Inside heat packs there is a chemical, usually sodium acetate and water, when you mix those chemicals together the reaction is exothermic, and the product feels hot. To see what happens inside hot and cold packs watch the video below.
Have you ever thought to yourself, if only this experiment would go faster? Okay, maybe not, but I certainly have, and there is no better way to force a reaction to speed up than by adding a catalyst. If you drive a vehicle, you use a catalyst everyday without even knowing it.Catalytic converters are an important part of your vehicle’s exhaust system, and typically use platinum and/or palladium as catalysts. The poisonous gases, such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide, which would normally be released by your vehicle’s engine, are converted to less harmful gases, such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen, by the catalytic converter just before they are released into the atmosphere. Catalysts are substances that increase the speed of a reaction without being used up. They speed up the reactions in two main ways. The first is by creating an intermediate compound that is quickly changed into the desired product. Typically these intermediate compounds are very unstable, and once the final product is synthesized, the catalyst returns to its original form, unaltered. This is very important because that’s the basic definition of a catalyst: a compound, which is chemically unaltered at the end of the reaction. The second way a catalyst can work is by adsorption. Adsorption (not a typo), is when a molecule sticks to the surface of the catalyst. You may be wondering how having a molecule stick to a surface will speed up a reaction. Well it does this because when the two or more molecules you want to react can both (all) be held onto the surface, they will be in very close proximity to one another and have more of a chance of reacting with one another. This speeds up the process of waiting for these molecules to get close enough to one another in order to react. Catalytic converters in your vehicle work by way of adsorption. Carbon monoxide bonds to the platinum or palladium and is quickly converted to carbon dioxide, then released from the vehicle. To see a reaction sped up using a catalyst watch the video below.
This month I wanted to celebrate chemistry by talking about precipitation reactions. These always impress me, and I hope they impress you too! A precipitation reaction occurs when two liquids are combined, and a solid material is produced. In chemistry, precipitation reactions are often used in order to produce and isolate a desired chemical.It all starts with dissolved solids. Molecules typically dissolve to produce ions. When we think of dissolving, we mostly think of water. Water is an excellent solvent (the material that the solute dissolves into), but not all molecules will dissolve in water. The most common types of molecule that dissolve into water are ionic molecules. For instance, large organic molecules like flour are not ionic and won’t dissolve in water. Essentially all molecules are soluble but only in certain solvents. In order to form a precipitate you have to know what will and will not dissolve in which solution.So when we mix two solutions together, new products are formed. When one of the products is not soluble in the other we get a precipitate. To see the formation of a precipitate, watch the video below and remember;“If you’re not part of the solution, you’re part of the precipitate!”
Material science is the study and manipulation of materials, which includes everything from plastics, adhesives, coatings, and even insulating materials.This field affects many aspects of everyday life and has had a significant impact on the world of sports. Many different types of sports equipment such as hockey sticks, tennis rackets, skis, snowboards and golf clubs just to name a few, benefit from composite materials. Composites are materials that are structured together in order to increase the materials’ strength, stability, its ability to withstand heat, pliability, or any other physical properties.Alloys are similar to composites in that they are made up of two or more different materials. However unlike composites, alloys are made purely of metal, and become a homogeneous mixture of the metals forming an entirely new material. The most famous alloy would be that of nickel and iron, yielding stainless steel, but there are many other types of alloys. Material scientists in the 1960’s discovered that if they alloy (mix) nickel and titanium together the resulting metal, called nitinol, displays some very interesting properties.Some of the most famous discoveries in the field of material science include Teflon in the 1930’s, Kevlar in the 1970’s and more recently, carbon nanotubes. Nanotechnology is now playing a key role in material science. As we are able to really understand molecules and their behaviours on the nanoscale we are able to do things with them that we never thought possible.So what exactly is the nanoscale? It's a metric measurement on a very, very small scale. For instance, using the base unit of one metre, a kilometre is 1,000 times longer than a metre, while a millimetre is 1,000 times shorter than a metre. A nanometre is 1,000,000,000 (one billion) times shorter than a metre. Nanotechnology often sounds like something that really doesn’t have an application in our lives, maybe more like something of the future, but nanotechnology is here, every day. Material science is all about finding and creating new products to make life easier. From stain resistant clothing, to sports equipment, to medicine, and that’s just the beginning.To see a few different examples of material science, watch the video below.
Water is the most abundant molecule on earth. It exists as a solid, liquid and a gas.It isn’t always immediately associated with chemistry but it does have some really interesting and useful chemistry. Water molecules consist of one oxygen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms. Water displays fairly unique properties due to the way these elements bond.The atoms are bonded in what is referred to as polar covalent bonds. This means that the oxygen side of the molecule carries a slightly negative charge (because it has the electrons more often), while the hydrogen side carries a slightly positive charge (because it has the electrons less often).Unlike most other substances, water is most dense in its liquid form, and is why ice floats in water. This is an indication of how the atoms bond together to form the molecule. During freezing, water molecules begin to crystallize. As mentioned earlier water displays fairly unique properties including the way they bond together. While freezing, water molecules cannot form tightly packed structures due to those polar covalent bonds. This ice formation ultimately creates a structure that is less dense and is why ice floats in water.Water is one of the most useful and common solvents known, due in part to those polar covalent bonds. Those bonds allow the water molecules to easily split other molecules based on their charges, thus readily dissolving them.The polarity of water molecules is also responsible for a very neat property of water called cohesion and adhesion. Cohesion is the ability of water to stick to itself, whereas adhesion is the ability of water to stick to other surfaces. This is why we sometimes see droplets of water suspended on vertical surfaces.To see water behave in these odd ways check out the video below.
As we’re celebrating the International Year of Chemistry, chemists are hard at work. Very recently, it was announced that they’re changing the periodic table for the first time since the mid-twentieth century! In order to understand how and why they’re changing the periodic table we have to understand isotopes.An element is determined by how many protons it has. However the number of neutrons it has can vary, and when an element has a different number of neutrons than its most common form, we call it an isotope. The number of protons and electrons remain the same, but the number of neutrons differs, and therefore the atomic mass differs. Up until now, elements on the periodic table have had their atomic masses listed as an average of all their different isotopes. This new change to the periodic table will see 10 elements’ atomic masses listed as a range, rather than a single number. This is important to analytical chemistry that relies heavily on extremely accurate figures.Not all isotopes are stable. Isotopes that are not stable can undergo two different types of reactions in order to reach a stable state. They can either decay or they can fuse together. In both situations a new atom is formed, and the unstable isotope no longer exists.To better visualize the fission and fusion processes, try the activity below.
“My name is Bond, Ionic Bond: taken, not shared.” - Caren Thomas When thinking about bonding, we need to think about our own personal bonds. Some are strong, some are weak, but they are all for the same purpose; to satisfy a need. Bonding between atoms happens primarily in order to satisfy an atom’s need to fill its energy shells with electrons. There are a few different types of bonds that can form between atoms, but the three most common are ionic, covalent and polar covalent.All atoms want their outermost energy shells filled with electrons. Whether this is achieved by giving electrons away, sharing them with another atom, or taking them from another atom, will determine what type of bond is formed. Ionic bonds form when one atom gives away its electrons to another. Salt is a good example of an ionic bond. The chemical formula for salt is NaCl, which means it has one sodium (Na) atom, and one chlorine (Cl) atom. Sodium will give one electron to chlorine, making sodium a positively charged ion, and chlorine a negatively charged ion. Positively charged ions are called cations, and negatively charged ions are called anions, and an ionic bond is formed between the two. Ionic compounds such as salt readily dissolve in water because water is a polar molecule.That brings us to another type of bond, the polar covalent bond. Polar covalent molecules share electrons but not equally. When this happens, part of the molecule has a more negative charge, and the other part has a more positive charge.Since ionic compounds are made up of anions, and cations, as charged atoms they are attracted to opposite sides of a polar molecule. This attraction to opposite sides of the polar molecule results in a split of the ionic molecule, which results in it being dissolved.The last type of bond we are going to talk about is the covalent bond. The covalent bond is a sharing of electrons between atoms, but this time it is equal. This often happens when the atoms are the same, for instance a carbon to carbon bond. Because they are the same, they have the same pull on the electrons, so one isn’t stronger than the other, and they have to share equally.Atoms are building blocks, and bonds can be thought of as the glue that holds it all together. But just like between people, bonds can either build us up or tear us down; and a natural balance is achieved.
2011 is the International Year of Chemistry, and we will be celebrating it all year long.Since my passion is chemistry, I will be writing a new chemistry article every month for 2011. I will be covering topics from chemistry at the quantum level, to unreactive chemistry, to explosive chemistry. So without further ado, this first post is about celebrating chemistry, the study of atoms and molecules. “Chemistry is the bridge between the perceived world of substances and the imagined world of atoms.” -Peter AtkinsWhat better place to start than the building blocks. Chemistry is the study of atoms and molecules, their interactions with one another, their structure and their properties.Atoms have three main parts, called sub-atomic particles. There are neutrons, protons and electrons. By knowing how many, and which sub-atomic particles an atom contains, we can identify it. Neutrons and protons are located in the centre of the atom, called the nucleus. The nucleus is the densest part of the atom, and therefore holds all the weight. The more protons and neutrons there are, the heavier the atom will be. Protons carry a positive charge, and neutrons carry no charge, so the nucleus of an atom is always positively charged.The electrons are located outside of the nucleus, and give the atom its size. The more electrons there are, the further away from the nucleus they can be, and the bigger the atom. Electrons are negatively charged particles, and are thus attracted to the nucleus, and want to stay with the atom.Neutrons and protons must stay inside of the nucleus, but electrons have the freedom to move around. The electrons are responsible for bonding to other atoms, and creating molecules.We can’t see atoms, because they are much too small, but scientists have made assumptions about what atoms look like, based on their research. There are a few different models of the atom out there, but the easiest way to visualize it is using the Rutherford model. Pictured below is the Rutherford model of the nitrogen atom.As you can see from the image, nitrogen has seven protons in the centre, and seven electrons around the outside. The other things in the centre of the atom are neutrons. How atoms bond together to form molecules has everything to do with the atoms themselves, so be sure to check back next month for more about that. Happy International Year of Chemistry!
The soils in Sudbury are often on the slightly acidic side of the scale. For Sudburians this often means that there is a need to “lime” the soil before planting. But is pH only important for Sudburians?Of course not, pH is critical for everyone. Life is actually dependent on the pH of your blood. Human blood is slightly basic, with values ranging from 7.3 to 7.5. If the pH drops below 7.0 or rises above 7.8, the body dies.In fact, all solutions, including the foods that you eat, the fertilizer for your lawn, and the products that you use to clean your house, have a pH. They can be either acidic, neutral or basic. Not knowing the pH of these solutions can cause harmful reactions. Learn how to measure pH using this simple experiment.
If you are anything like I was when I was younger, you love rock candy! There is some very interesting chemistry involved with making this sweet treat. To make rock candy you have to start with a supersaturated solution. Supersaturated solutions are liquids that contain more dissolved solids than they can normally hold at room temperature.To see a supersaturated solution crystallize at an extremely fast rate, watch the video below.
In this month's post celebrating the International Year of Chemistry, we take a very, very close look at matter. Everything in the world is made of matter, and matter is made up of tiny particles.The manner in which these particles behave is defined as the particle theory. There are a few simple ideas in the particle theory. First, the particles of matter are in constant motion. Second, there are empty spaces between the particles that are very large compared to the particles themselves, and third, temperature affects the speed of the particles.Now matter has three main states that we are going to examine: solids, liquids, and gases. The particle theory is applicable to all three of these states. How do we get matter to change states? Well we increase or decrease the temperature; in terms of the particle theory, we increase or decrease the speed of the particles in the matter, and we do that by adjusting the temperature.So in the solid phase (cold matter), the particles are moving but doing so very slowly compared to a liquid or a gas.As we move into the liquid phase (a little warmer) the particles can move around quite a bit more, and as we move into the gaseous phase (hot) the particles can move around so much that they are hard to contain. As the particles in matter move, they sometimes collide with one another, or with the sides of the container they are in. In solids, the movement of the particles is limited because they are closely packed in together, so not much room to move around and bump into one another.That’s not to say that particles in solids don’t move, because they certainly do, but they mostly just vibrate.When we move into the liquid phase, the particles are little more spread out, and can move around.When they move around they often bump into each other. It is the ability of particles in a liquid to move around that allows liquids to flow.When we move into the gaseous phase, we notice that the spaces between the particles are very big, so these particles can move around a lot!So much so that gases are very hard to contain because of all the particle movement.One way to contain a gas is to trap it in a container, but unlike in the liquid phase, it has to be a closed container. Overall, this means that as a substance moves from being in the solid phase, to the liquid phase to the gas phase, it will need room to expand, because the spaces between the particles increase along with the temperature.The video below will demonstrate just how much more space is needed for the gaseous phase.
A few months ago, Discovery Channel's flagship program, Daily Planet, issued a challenge to Canada's science centres: come up with and show off your biggest and best science experiment. The competition, dubbed the Science Centre Showdown, was part of the celebration of Daily Planet's 15th anniversary. Being leaders in the field of science communication, we gladly accepted the challenge. So what did we do? Check out the video to find out!We called our experiment "The Northern Lights", after the brilliant colours produced by the reactions in this experiment. Colour is emitted when electrons move from an excited state back down to their natural state, and the energy given off happens to be in the visible light spectrum. With the Northern Lights, solar wind particles stream into the poles (both North and South), and excite the gases in the upper atmosphere. When this happens we get electron movement, which gives off energy in the visible spectrum. In this experiment, instead of gases, we ignited metals to achieve the same effect: sodium (yellow), potassium (violet), copper (blue-green) and strontium (crimson red).We used propane as the catalyst in this experiment. Propane has a molecular weight of 44.1g/mol, which makes it much heavier than air (about 29g/mol), and allows it to sink. Using the trough to guide the gas, we were able to have it flow down to the candles, thus igniting the trail of propane and the different metals. This is why you don't use propane indoors: it will sink to the lowest level, where most often it will encounter an ignition source.We also placed hydrogen filled balloons into the troughs to add to the excitement. Hydrogen is a highly explosive gas. When hydrogen and oxygen meet, they undergo what is known as a redox reaction. In redox reactions, one molecule gains electrons while the other loses electrons. The one that gains the electron is said to be reduced, and the one that loses the electron is said to be oxidized. Hydrogen only has one electron so it gives it up very easily, especially in the presence of a strong oxidizing agent such as oxygen. When it comes in contact with the flame, it undergoes the redox reaction so quickly and vigorously that it explodes.We were very happy to be chosen to compete in the Science Centre Showdown, and although we didn't win, we think we represented Science North very well, and we look forward to more competitions in the future! To see more experiments like this one, come visit us at Science North, where we have exciting demonstrations every day!
Statistics show that, on average, fire kills eight people each week in Canada, with residential fires accounting for 73% of these fatalities. Many fires are preventable and as such Science North and Sudbury Fire Services are teaming up for the 87th National Fire Prevention Week. This year the nationally recognized week is October 4-9th, 2010. A successful fire has three key ingredients: oxygen, fuel and heat. These three ingredients fit nicely into what is known as the fire triangle.If any of the ingredients are removed, or even slightly decreased, the fire will be extinguished, or not start to begin with. If all of the ingredients are present, a fire will ensue, and if any of the three ingredients are increased, the fire will get larger. As fires get larger, they get faster, hotter, harder to control, and much harder to extinguish. In our natural environment, we already have one of the main ingredients, oxygen! The air around us contains approximately 21% oxygen, which is enough for any fire.The most efficient way to extinguish a small fire is to starve it of oxygen. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers do just that. Although air, and thus oxygen is all around us, carbon dioxide is much heavier than air, and is able to push the air, along with the oxygen, out of the way. This is why when you are attempting to extinguish a fire with a handheld fire extinguisher, you always spray the bottom of the fire in a sweeping motion. This allows the carbon dioxide to push the oxygen out of the way, and starves the fire, thus extinguishing it. But remember, if the fire is too large, this won’t help, as there will be plenty of oxygen feeding in from the top.Throughout National Fire Prevention Week, October 4-9th 2010, Science North will be presenting a 50 minute show in the Discovery Theatre about fire and the ways of preventing it. This exciting show is sure to wow you and your family, while teaching you valuable lessons that may just save your life! Don’t miss it, and remember to always be Fire Safe! For more information please contact Sarah Chisnell.
Science North is an agency of the Government of Ontario. Dynamic Earth is a Science North attraction.
IMAX® is registered trademark of IMAX Corporation. Ripley and Ripley's Believe It or Not!® are registered trademarks of Ripley Entertainment Inc.
Science North is a not-for-profit and a registered charity.